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There are many causes of male infertility, including sperm-related conditions. The three primary sperm-motility causes of male infertility, include:
1. lack of, or misshaped, sperm tail
2. sperm maturation defects
3. immotile cilia
Congenital abnormalities in the sperm can result in failure of the sperm tail to develop properly. Sperm with missing or misshaped tails are unable to effectively propel themselves after ejaculation.
Sperm with maturation defects do not grow and mature at a normal rate, which impacts their ability to perform normal sperm functions.
When immotile cilia is the problem, the small hair-like structures that aid in propelling the sperm to its destination, are not working properly, impairing the sperm's ability to "swim." Defects in the sperm themselves can also impair the function of the cilia.